Dr Kesler Dalmacy

1671 New York Ave—Brooklyn, NY, 11210     Tel: 718-434-5345 / FAX 718.434.5567   ©  Copyright 2018

 

   

Text Box: Text Box: Dr. Kesler Dalmacy, New York Physician, Diplomat American Board of Pathology, Takes Steps to Prevent Further Spread of Cholera in Haiti

Haiti cholera epidemic is spreading quickly and could easily worsen despite efforts to control it. As concerns rise over massive health challenges, Dr. Dalmacy outlines steps every Haitian and every health provider caring for cholera victims should take to stay alive, save lives and prevent further spread of the disease.

Family Medical

Dr. Dalmacy is a Pathology specialist:

Description
 
Pathologists focus on the study of diseases through the
examination of blood, tissue and organs. There are two main branches of pathology: anatomical pathology, which studies diseases through autopsies and organ and tissue samples; and clinical pathology, which deals with the analysis of bodily fluids. Pathologists, who typically don’t work directly with patients, can diagnose diseases through microscopic and laboratory analyses. One pathology subspecialty is forensic pathology, in which physicians perform autopsies and apply other pathology techniques to determine the cause of death.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
About General Pathology

 
What is pathology? 
 
Pathology, or general pathology, is the medical specialty focused on the diagnosis of disease through analysis of blood, tissues or urine in a pathology lab. A division of pathology is anatomical pathology (study of organs and tissues to diagnose disease), which is broken into the following subspecialties: forensic pathology (determining cause of death), autopsy pathology (performing autopsies), surgical pathology, and cytopathology (study of diseases on the cellular level). Other subspecialties include clinical chemical pathology (study of antibodies, hormones, immune system and pharmacology), clinical pathology (working directly with patients), hematology (study of blood) and microbiology (study of bacteria, parasites and viruses). 

Who are pathologists?
 
Pathologists are doctors who are concerned with the diagnosis of disease, as well as prevention and treatment. These specialists use a microscope or other diagnostic tools to look at blood, urine or other body fluid specimens and detect chemical makeup in the body. Based on the test results, he or she may recommend additional study of the specimen.
 
Pathologists typically work in a hospital or pathology lab, and may work in administrative roles supervising divisions of a clinical pathology lab. They may oversee special divisions of the lab, such as the blood bank, clinical chemistry, hematology, immunology and serology, and microbiology. Pathologists are certified by The American Board of Pathology.

What types of specimens does a pathologist collect? 
 
General pathology relates to the collection of a specimen or specimens for the diagnosis of disease. The types of specimens a pathologist may collect include:

Blood – Usually drawn from a vein through a needle in the forearm, or sometimes pricked from a finger.


Urine The “random method” is when a patient urinates into a cup; “clean catch specimen” takes a sample of urine after the outer genital area has been sanitized; and a “sterile urine test” requires catheterization (a tube inserted through the urethra into the bladder to take a sample of urine). Sometimes the patient will need to undergo several urine tests to measure changes in urine over time.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



Sputum (phlegm) – Samples are taken from sputum that has been coughed into a clean container.

 
Feces – Collected by the patient into a clean plastic or cardboard container.

 
Other bodily fluidsSpinal fluid, pleural fluids (lung or pleural cavity fluids), abdominal fluids, joint fluids.

 
Tissue – Obtained from any organ in the body such as liver, bone, brain, skin, intestines, etc.

Dr Kesler Dalmacy

St. Marc’s Hospital, where the most seriously ill patients have been triaged to clinicians and others wait to be seen
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Brooklyn, NY (PRWEB) November 2010
 

Early in October 2010, a number of Cholera cases were reported in localities of Haiti’s Central and Artibonite regional departments. Within a few days, the disease spread out in other nearby localities. By October 21st, 2010 the National Laboratory of Public Health in Haiti identified Vibrio Cholerae O1, biotype El Tor as the agent responsible for this outbreak.

By the time of the announcement, 1,526 cases and 138 deaths were reported by the ministry of Health. Additional cases of cholera continued to appear in nearby regions along the Artibonite River thereafter, and on October 27, a total of 4722 cholera cases and 303 related deaths were documented.

The epidemic is spreading quickly. Cholera currently exists in all of Haiti’s geographic departments; it has spread to the country’s national prison and 10 inmates have been confirmed dead. All the hospitals in Port-au-Prince are already overfilled to capacity; patients are lying in the streets, waiting for treatment. U.N. predict that while the outbreak places all Haiti’s 10 million citizens at risk, it could infect 200,000 people.

According to Dr. Marie-Ange D. Tardieu, a plastic surgeon and historian of medicine who was in Lima during the 1991 Cholera Epidemic in Peru, "this epidemic of cholera is highly contagious and will spare no one in Haiti: Rich, poor, foreigners, travelers, farmers, professionals, government officials, health care workers, healthy or sick, young or old, babies and children, all can be and will be affected. Those already suffering from other parasitic infestations are at greater risk of developing “full blown” cholera."

Haiti cholera death toll soars, and the epidemic shows no sign of abating. As of November 18, 2010 the death toll rose to over 1, 100; close to 20, 000 have fallen sick. Dozens of deaths are confirmed in
                                                                Port-au-Prince and Petion-
                                                                Ville. Cases are reported in
                                                                the Dominican Republic and
                                                                Florida. Experts predict that if
                                                                more cases of cholera are
                                                                confirmed, the outbreak
                                                                threatens some 2, 5 to 3
                                                                million people living in Port-
                                                                au-Prince. Dr. K. Dalmacy, a
                                                                Haitian born physician
                                                                practicing in New York, specialist in preventive medicine and Diplomate of the American Board of Pathology noted "Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of food and water contaminated with the bacteria vibrio cholerae. It has a short incubation period and produces painless profuse watery diarrhea that quickly leads to dehydration, shock and death if treatment is not promptly administered."... "The infection can kill a victim in less than 2 hours ... But cholera can easily be treated and is preventable if one understands how it occurs and how it spreads.."

According to the CDC, "Haiti is the latest country to be affected by the ongoing cholera pandemic, which began 49 years ago in Sulawesi, Indonesia, and has lasted longer and spread farther than any previously known cholera pandemic." The course of the cholera outbreak in Haiti is difficult to predict … environmental conditions in Haiti are favorable for its continued spread."

Haiti’s cholera epidemic could easily worsen despite efforts to control it. To help every individual residing in Haiti stay alive, save lives and prevent further spread of the epidemic, Dr. Dalmacy, in collaboration with Dr. Marie Ange D Tardieu, recommends the following:

1 Everyone should be aware of  what bacteria cause Cholera. Cholera is an anfection of the small intestine caused by the bacterium vibrio cholera. Epidemics of cholera are caused
by one of 2 vibrio cholera strains: Vibrio cholera O1 and vibrio cholera vibrio cholera 0139. The vibrio cholera 01 occurs as two biotypes: The classical biotype, and the El Tor.
The classical biotype was the one that was implicated in the first 6 cholera pandemics.
The El Tor biotype, first identified in 1960, is the agent causing the current cholera epidemic in Haiti. This type makes it likely that the cholera epidemic will continue to spread in Haiti for a while. When compared to the classical strain, those infected with the El Tor the disease for longer period of time, and the bacterium is able to survive longer than the classical strain.                 

  2.  Everyone must know how to recognize the symptoms of
      cholera. The main symptoms of cholera are profuse diarrhea and vomiting. But someone infected with cholera may have no symptoms at all or may have complaints of mild diarrhea. Only 7% of those who are infected present with the typical “full blown” syndrome of cholera. When “full blown,” cholera is the most rapidly fatal illness known to mankind.

The first symptom of cholera is a sensation of fullness and “gurgling” in the belly. This is followed rapidly by the first loose stool. After several watery stools, the resultant stool takes the typical appearance of “rice water.” The “rice water” stool usually loses its odor except a mild fishy odor. A healthy person may become hypotensive (low blood pressure) within one hour of the onset of symptoms, and may die within 2-3 hours if no treatment is provided. More commonly, the disease progresses from the first liquid stool to shock within 4-12 hours, with death occurring within 18 hours to several days.
 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
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